Types of Chemotherapy - Chemotherapy: Open Access (Special Edition)


Antitumor Antibiotics

Antitumor antibiotics are chemo treatments made of natural merchandise made by species of the soil plant life actinomycete.  These medication act throughout multiple phases of the cell cycle and are thought of cell-cycle specific.  There are many forms of growth antibiotics:

  • Anthracyclines: antibiotic, Daunorubicin, Epirubicin, Mitoxantrone, and Idarubicin.
  • Chromomycins:  Dactinomycin and Plicamycin.

Alkylating Agents

Alkylating agents are most active within the resting section of the cell.  These forms of medication are cell-cycle non-specific.  There are many forms of alkylating agents utilized in therapy treatments:

  • Poison gas derivatives:  Mechlorethamine, Cyclophosphamide, alkalating agent, Melphalan, and Ifosfamide.
  • Ethylenimines: antineoplastic and Hexamethylmelamine.
  • Alkylsulfonates:  Busulfan.
  • Hydrazines and Triazines: Altretamine, antineoplastic drug, Dacarbazine and Temozolomide.
  • Nitrosureas:  Carmustine, cancer drug and Streptozocin.  Nitrosureas are distinctive as a result of, in contrast to most forms of chemo treatments, they will cross the barrier. they will be helpful in treating brain tumors.
  • Metal salts:  Carboplatin, Cisplatin, and Oxaliplatin.

Plant Alkaloids

Plant alkaloids are therapy treatments derived made of bound forms of plants.  The Vinca alkaloids are made of the periwinkle plant (catharanthus rosea). The taxanes are made of the bark of the western yew tree (taxus).  The Vinca alkaloids and taxanes are called antimicrotubule agents. The podophyllotoxins are derived from the could apple plant. Camptothecan analogs are derived from the Asian "Happy Tree" (Camptotheca acuminata).  Podophyllotoxins and camptothecan analogs are called topoisomerase inhibitors, that are utilized in bound forms of therapy.  The plant alkaloids are cell-cycle specific. this implies they attack the cells throughout varied phases of division.

  • Vinca alkaloids: Oncovin, periwinkle plant derivative and Vinorelbine.
  • Taxanes:  Paclitaxel and Docetaxel.
  • Podophyllotoxins:  Etoposide and Tenisopide.
  • Camptothecan analogs: Irinotecan and Topotecan.
  • Miscellaneous: Mutamycin and Bleomycin.


Antimetabolites are forms of therapy treatments that are terribly kind of like traditional substances among the cell. Once the cells incorporate these substances into the cellular metabolism, they're unable to divide. Antimetabolites are classified per the substances with that they interfere.

  • B antagonist: antimetabolite.
  • Pyrimidine antagonist:  5-Fluorouracil, Foxuridine, Cytarabine, Capecitabine, and Gemcitabine.
  • Purine antagonist:  6-Mercaptopurine and 6-Thioguanine.
  • ADA inhibitor:  Cladribine, Fludarabine, Nelarabine and Pentostatin.

Miscellaneous Antineoplastics

Several helpful forms of therapy medication are unique:

  • Ribonucleotide enzyme inhibitor:  Hydroxyurea. 
  • Cortex steroid inhibitor:  Mitotane
  • Enzymes: Elspar and Pegaspargase.
  • Antimicrotubule agent:  Estramustine
  • Retinoids:  Bexarotene, Isotretinoin, Tretinoin (ATRA)

Beyond the aforesaid forms of therapy, several alternative forms of chemo treatments exist, like targeted medical aid, therapy, and endocrine medical aid.

Topoisomerase Inhibitors

Toposiomerase inhibitors are forms of therapy medication that interfere with the action of topoisomerase enzymes (topoisomerase I and II). throughout the method of chemo treatments, topoisomerase enzymes management the manipulation of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid necessary for replication.

  • Topoisomerase I inhibitors:  Ironotecan, topotecan
  • Topoisomerase II inhibitors:  Amsacrine, etoposide, etoposide phosphate, teniposide

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