Iron Deficiency Anaemia


Iron Deficiency Anaemia

Journal of Cancer Research and Immuno-Oncology is an open access journal in the field of cancer research. It focuses on becoming one of the best peer reviewed journal in the field of cancer research.

Anaemia can be defined by a condition in which the total haemoglobin (Hb) level or number of red blood cells (RBCs) is poorly lowered. The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines anaemia as

Hb<130 g/L in men older than 15 years, 110 g/L in pregnant women, and <120 g/L in non-pregnant women older than age 15 years.

Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is one of the most widespread nutritional deficiency and accounts for almost one half of anaemia cases. It is prevalent in many countries of the developing world and accounts to five per cent (American women) and two per cent (American men). In most cases, this deficiency disorder may be diagnosed through full blood analysis (complete blood count) and high levels of serum ferritin. IDA may occur due to the physiological demands in growing children, adolescents and pregnant women may also lead to IDA. However, the underlying cause should be sought in case of all patients. To exclude a source of gastrointestinal bleeding medical procedure like gastroscopy/colonoscopy is utilized to evaluate the level of iron deficiency in patients without a clear physiological explanation. Inevitably, the accurate management of this disorder improves the quality of life, improves the symptoms of iron deficiency, and lessens the requirement for blood transfusion. The treatment options include oral iron supplement and intravenous iron therapy. However, this mode of treatment is not tolerable by some patients while it is insufficient in a certain subset of patients. Therefore, intravenous iron supplementation is considered undesirable approach and there is not much clarity on the safety concerns associated with this approach in case of very high doses or in the presence of very high ferritin levels. In addition, red cell transfusion is not recommended for IDA unless there is a need for immediate action. The objective of the review is to provide a critical summary and an update of the diagnosis and treatment options of IDA.

IDA remains a common and important disorder and accounts for approximately one-half of the cases of anaemia. Нe diagnosis of anaemia is confirmed by the findings of low iron stores and haemoglobin level below normal. In cases of IDA, oral iron treatment should be initiated for the replenishment of iron stores. Intravenous therapy may also be used in patients who cannot tolerate or absorb oral iron formulations.

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