Human immunodeficiency infections 1 and 2 (HIV-1, HIV-2) 


The human immunodeficiency infections 1 and 2 (HIV-1, HIV-2) began from the simian immunodeficiency infections (SIVs) of primates. Along these lines, HIV-1 and HIV-2 each had a zoonotic root yet now spread straightforwardly from human to human. HIV-1 was first detached in 1983 and HIV-2 of every 1986 and they speak to two distinct scourges. The SIV of chimpanzees (SIVcpz) offered ascend to HIV-1 in people, and the SIV of the dirty mangabey monkey (SIVsm) to HIV-2 in people. It is as yet unsure precisely how the transmission of these SIVs to people happened, however it might have been during the chasing and readiness of these primates for food, by the indigenous individuals of these regions in Central and Western Africa, where these primate species live. Studies utilizing atomic clock transformative presumptions have proposed that the progenitor infection for HIV-1 showed up in around 19313 and that of HIV-2 in around 1940.4 After this underlying transmission occasion, it is likely people contaminated with these primate SIVs then communicated the human type of the infections (HIV-1, HIV-2) to others in their networks, from where it spread, around the world.

Characterization of HIV

The two human immunodeficiency infections, HIV-1 and HIV-2, are individuals from the group of Retroviruses, in the family of Lentiviruses. Retroviruses have been found in different vertebrate species, related with a wide assortment of illnesses, in the two creatures and people. Specifically, retroviruses have been seen as related with malignancies, immune system infections, immunodeficiency conditions, aplastic and haemolytic anaemias, bone and joint sickness and illnesses of the sensory system.

The a wide range of strains of HIV-1 have been isolated into major (M), new (N) and exception (O) gatherings, which may speak to three separate zoonotic exchanges from chimpanzees. Gatherings N and O are for the most part limited to West and Central Africa (Gabon and Cameroon), however instances of Group O have been discovered worldwide because of universal travel, after contact with tainted people from these territories. The HIV strains in Group M are the ones primarily liable for the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and they are various to such an extent that they have been subclassified into subtypes (or clades) A-K. This enormous decent variety of HIV-1 is significant when demonstrative testing, treatment and checking are applied as the outcomes may vary between various subtypes or clades (see HIV Global Genetic Diversity and Epidemiology underneath). The decent variety of HIV-2 is significantly less, yet subtypes A-H have been proposed.                      

Jessie Franklin
Managing Editor
Virology & Mycology
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